Reduced hierarchical structure —Hierarchies are cumbersome and cannot respond quickly to changing market demands, such as pressures for reduced cycle time and continuous innovation. Hierarchies are being replaced by cross unit organizational groupings with fewer layers and more decentralized decision making. Blurred boundaries —As organizations become more laterally structured, boundaries begin to breakdown as different parts of the organization need to work more effectively together.
Boundaries between departments as well as between job categories manager, professional, technical become looser and there is a greater need for task and knowledge sharing.
Teams as basic building blocks —The move toward a team-based organizational structure results from pressures to make rapid decisions, to reduce inefficiencies, and to continually improve work processes. New management perspective —Workers are no longer managed to comply with rules and orders, but rather to be committed to organizational goals and mission. The blurring of boundaries also affects organizational roles.
As employees gain more decision authority and latitude, managers become more social supporters and coaches rather than commanders. Continuous change —Organizations are expected to continue the cycles of reflection and reorganization. However, changes may be both large and small and are likely to be interspersed with periods of stability.
Kling and Zmuidzinas identify three types of change—"metamorphosis" far reaching, fundamental change , "migration" shifts toward a new form , and "elaboration" changes that enhance some aspect of work.
Over the past two decades, a new pattern of work is emerging as the knowledge economy realizes the full potential of both new technologies and new organizational models. The changes fall into the following domains:. Although these domains are discussed separately, they overlap.
enter site We briefly discuss the overlaps, where they exist, and point to the benefits and concerns the new work patterns present for workers and managers. Cognitive workers are expected to be more functionally and cognitively fluid and able to work across many kinds of tasks and situations. The broader span of work, brought about by changes in organizational structure, also creates new demands, including:. Increased complexity of work —Workers need to know more, not only to do their jobs and tasks, but also to work effectively with others on teams. Many knowledge-based tasks require sound analytical and judgment skills to carry out work that is more novel, extemporaneous, and context based, with few rules and structured ways of working.
Although demand for high cognitive skills are especially prominent in professional, technical, and managerial jobs, even administrative tasks require more independent decision making and operational decision making. Continuous competency development —Not only do workers need to keep their technology skills up to date, they need to be continuous learners in their knowledge fields and to also be more conversant with business strategy. Time to read and attend training classes is no longer a perquisite of only a few, it is essential for all workers.
Different ways of thinking —Rosabeth Kantor argues that cross-functional and cross boundary teams require "kaleidoscope thinking," the ability to see alternative angles and perspectives and to create new patterns of thinking that propel innovation. Workers also need to be able to synthesize disparate ideas in order to make the cognitive leaps that underlie innovation. Vastly increased access to information has made work both easier and more difficult. The ease comes from ability to rapidly locate and download information from diverse web sites.
The difficulty comes with the need to consume and make sense of new information in a timely fashion. Information overload, coupled with time pressures and increased work complexity, lead to what psychologists call "cognitive overload syndrome COS. In a report on the changing nature of work, the National Research Council called attention to the importance of relational and interactive aspects of work. As collaboration and collective activity become more prevalent, workers need well-developed social skills—what the report calls "emotional labor.
Team work and collaboration —Conflict resolution and negotiation skills are essential to collaborative work. Conflicts often occur about group goals, work methods, assignments, workloads, and recognition.
Team members with good conflict and negotiation skills are better equipped to deal openly with problems, to listen and understand different perspectives, and to resolve issues in mutually beneficial ways. Relationship development and networking —Sharing important information, fulfilling promises, willingness to be influenced, and listening are building blocks of reciprocity and the development of trust.
When workers trust one another, they are more committed to attaining mutual goals, more likely to help one another through difficulties, and more willing to share and develop new ideas.
Learning and growth —Many organizations strive to be learning centers—to create conditions in which employees learn not only through formal training but through relationships with coworkers. Learning relationships build on joint problem solving, insight sharing, learning from mistakes, and working closely together to aid transmission of tacit knowledge.
Learning also develops from mentoring relationships between newcomers and those with experience and organizational know-how.
In a collaborative work setting, the fate of individuals is inextricably bound to collective success. Dependence on others for one's own success is often uncomfortable.
Comments about the fear of not having individual efforts recognized are common in the literature on team work. Collaboration and relationship development also take time and effort. Understanding coworkers' perspectives and "thought worlds" requires time spent listening, integrating, and synthesizing.
For those workers recognized as both knowledgeable and approachable, the demands of interaction may be especially high. As work changes, so does the nature of the relationships between employees and employers. In contrast, the old psychological contract was all about job security and steady advancement within the firm. As already discussed, few workers expect, or desire, lifelong employment in a single firm. These new individuals are invested in "psychological self determination. Reduced loyalty and commitment —With little expectation for advancement, workers feel less committed to organizational goals and more committed to their own learning and development.
The knowledge and technological skills that employees bring with them to the workplace are transportable and are not lost when a new job is taken. Increased time burdens —Years of downsizing and outsourcing have produced what Lesie Perlow calls a "time famine"—the feeling of having too much to do and too little time to do it. In order to keep up with workloads, many workers are spending longer hours at work, according to reports by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Center for Workforce Development.
Those with flex hours have limited freedom regarding when and where to work. The vast majority of workers have to commit to a specific day to work at home or a specific day to take off if they work fourhour days.
The changing workplace is driven by the organizational issues described above and enabled by technologies that support mobility and easy access to information. These pressures and opportunities, however, have not resulted in a specific new workplace model.
Many models and ideas exist concurrently, with designs depending upon the organization, its work practices, culture, and customers. And for the most part, these changes were good; "The Information Revolution brought a shift from older, blue-collar industrial jobs toward newer, white-collar service work.
The majority of professional positions remained intact, and new positions were created for young professionals who were getting their feet wet in the new wave of technology. Even though new jobs were created other jobs were eliminated. The new form of technology caused some people to gain employment whereas others lost their jobs which forced them to learn new skills for the new positions. This caused what is known as a dual labor market, which has two categories of jobs, primary and secondary.
The shift in the labor market and creation and reformation of current jobs caused sociological issues in the workplace. These sociological changes are understood by three major theoretical approaches: the structural-functional approach, the symbolic-interaction approach and the social-conflict approach. The structural-functional approach, as described by Macionis has a basic principle, "that the various social institutions are interrelated, so that change in one institution leads to adjustments in all others.
This is to mean that if there is decline in one industry due to the new technology then another will take its place. The Australian economy 3.
With the development of technology the human race was also able to accomplish a lot of things. Online Essays live chat software. Collaborating also makes employees more responsible, which goes a long way in raising their motivation levels, especially when teams work virtually. The profound integration of technology into everyday life shows how unusual it is for someone not to have access to all the forms available. Teaching Procedures Essay. Impact Of Technology On The Workplace Essay - To remain competitive and employable in the twenty-first century workplace, society today must conform to the changing demands.
Technology The last fifteen years has seen many changes in technology, the Australian economy and Australian society. Immigration, economic reform, trade policies and the push toward a global economy have shaped growth in the Australian economy. These issues include both language and technology literacy.